微波應用 Microwave applications
Microwave energy in the application of fresh meat products sterilization
Microwave energy in the application of fresh meat products sterilization
With the continuous improvement of people's living standards and changes in consumer attitudes, the food industry's product mix, quality of quality, safety and health and put forward higher requirements, especially various types of traditional, convenient bags of food, it is become a hot consumer food market. However, in these food production, preservation, transportation and marketing process can easily contaminate deterioration, thus losing business value. Although the national food hygiene health indicators for various types of food have made strict rules, but in general, it is difficult to meet the standards. This not only greatly affect the shelf life of the product, but also to protect people's health is extremely unfavorable. While you can often use high-temperature drying, blanching, pasteurization, refrigeration and preservatives and other conventional techniques to achieve food insect sterilization and preservation. However, most of these devices are huge, long processing time, sterilization is not complete or difficult to automate production, but often affect the original flavor of food and nutrients. While the microwave is to make the food insect sterilization of microorganisms such as insects, while being microwave thermal effects and non-thermal effects of joint action to physiological activity of protein substances and mutate, resulting in slow growth of microorganisms and death, the food insecticide, sterilization, and preservation purposes.
Second, the mechanism of microwave sterilization preservation
Microwave sterilization, food preservation is hoped will be processed by microwave energy to make food bacteria, insects and microorganisms such as loss of vitality or death, ensure food bacterial content in a certain shelf life still exceeds the allowable range specified in the Food Sanitation Law , thereby extending its shelf life.
The following summarizes the possible mechanism of microwave sterilization preservation:
As we all know, bacteria, adults with any biological cells, is composed of water, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and inorganic compounds such as complex consisting of a condensation medium. Wherein the water is the main component of biological cells, the content of 75-85%, because the bacteria in various physiological activities must be carried out in water, and the bacterial growth and reproduction process, a variety of the absorption of nutrients through the cell membrane qualitative diffusion, osmotic absorption accomplished.
In a certain intensity of the microwave field under the action of insects and bacteria in food molecules are also due to polarization relaxation, while absorbing microwave energy to heat up. Because they are condensed medium, strong force between the molecules to increase the microwave energy into heat energy state. So that the body protein by both non-polar and polar rotation two thermal motion of the role of structural change or destroy its space and make protein denaturation. Protein denaturation, its solubility, viscosity, swelling, permeability, stability, significant changes occur, and loss of biological activity. On the other hand, non-thermal effects of microwave energy in sterile routine physical sterilization has played a special role that are not also in favor of bacterial causes of death.
Microwave sterilization, and preservation of microwave thermal effects and non-thermal effects result of joint action. Mainly from the thermal effects of microwave rapid heating sterilization; rather than thermal effects of protein using microbes mutate and physiologically active substances, and the loss of vitality or death. Thus, the temperature lower than the conventional method of microwave sterilization, under normal circumstances, a conventional method sterilization temperature to 120 ℃ -130 ℃, about 1 hour, and microwave sterilization temperature is only to 70 ℃ -105 ℃, time of about 90-180 seconds. Third, the characteristics of a microwave sterilization preservation, time is short, fast
Conventional thermal sterilization through heat conduction, convection or radiation, etc. to spread the heat from the surface of the food inside. To achieve sterilization temperature, often takes a long time. Microwave sterilization is microwave energy with food and its direct interaction between bacteria and other microorganisms, thermal effects and non-thermal effects of joint action, to achieve rapid heating sterilization, the processing time is shortened, a variety of materials, sterilization is generally in 3-5 minutes. 2, low-temperature sterilization to maintain nutritional ingredients and traditional flavors
Microwave sterilization through a special thermal and non-thermal effects of sterilization, compared with the conventional heat sterilization, in a relatively low temperature and shorter time will be able to achieve the desired sterilization effect. Practice shows that the general sterilization temperature at 75-80 ℃ can achieve the desired effect, in addition, microwaved foods can retain more nutrients and color, smell, taste, shape and other flavors, and there puffing effect. Processed vegetables such as conventional thermal retention of vitamin C is 46-50%, while the microwave treatment was 60-90%, liver vitamin A conventional heating maintained at 58% and 84% of the microwave heating. 3, energy conservation
Conventional thermal sterilization often exist in the environment and equipment heat loss, while the microwave is a direct effect of treatment on foods, so no additional heat loss. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the microwave energy in the 70-80%, compared to the side, generally 30-50% saving. 4, even completely
Conventional thermal sterilization is started from the surface of the material, and then spread through the heat conduction inside. Temperature difference exists. In order to maintain food flavor, reduce the processing time, often within the food does not reach a temperature sufficient to affect the sterilization effect. Because microwave penetrating effect on the overall food processing, surface and interior are also subject to effect, so sterilization evenly and thoroughly. 5, easy to control
Microwave equipment can be ready to use, there is no conventional thermal sterilization thermal inertia, operational flexibility, microwave power from zero to rated power continuously adjustable, continuously adjusts the transmission speed from scratch, easy to control. 6, simple equipment, advanced technology
Compared with conventional sterilization, microwave sterilization equipment, does not require boiler, complex piping systems, coal field and transport vehicles, as long as with water, electricity and basic conditions can. 7, improve working conditions, save area
Equipment, working environment temperature, low noise, greatly improved working conditions. Package of microwave equipment operator only 2-3 people.
Widely used in beef jerky, preserved pork, fish, meat sauce skull, duck, chicken and other products, heating, drying and sterilization, to market the product successfully achieve good results. If that does not use meat sauce fontanelle microwave sterilization and preservation techniques, then three days or so will be corruption, seriously affecting sales, reach the intended economic benefits. Cooked food in the system throughout the production process of a microwave sterilization Freshness arrangement will solve a key means to extend food preservation, meat by microwave sterilization, its freshness, tenderness, flavor remain intact, completely below the national health indicators food hygiene standards, shelf storage time of up to 1-2 months, microwave meat sterilization, preservation successful application of technology, from the original shelf life three days, was extended to 1-2 months, the technology has improved to the results new stage.
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